#AmericanSniper #ChrisKyle #DODNews #BradleyCooper Actor Interview [VIDEO]

Video Source [DODNews]
M.Katherine Orts & husband Pastor A. Orts founders of USDefenseLeague.com “Pushing Back Tyranny with Truth for The Glory of God & our Good USA #pro-Israel”
We honor and pray for all US Military, active duty & Veterans. May God continue to bless you, guide you & guard you and your families at home or abroad.

Our US Military Prayer for all of you right now: We are Praying to Father God in Jesus Name by the authority of Jesus by His shed Blood for protection, healing, wisdom, discernment, unity, Holiness, and for Holy Ghost Power in battles and rest Holy Angelic Provision, Peace Surpassing all understanding, Joy as your Strength & Hope and Faith in Victory for Righteousness Sake, Love & prayers for all IJN+ Amen Selah
USDefenseLeague.com Staff & Family

RT! Support #SenMikeRounds #SD #KeystoneXL Vetoed On Obama’s Desk RT

USA show your support to Senator Mike Rounds of South Dakota. It’s been six long years to get this bill on Barack Obama’s desk. Senator Rounds did his job. Our executive branch let America and Americans down.

Our CIC, Mr. Barack Obama, just vetoed the KeystoneXL bill.

vetoed.XLpipeline

Tweet @SenatorRounds

Let our US Congress and POTUS know how wrong it is to read more

ISIS Film Luring Lone Wolfs To Strike USA? #makeDClisten #tcot #Shoebat

ISIS is pushing what they termed “Lone Wolf Agenda” and has produced a promotional video for Muslims living in the U.S., Canada and Europe to kill whom they termed “Crusaders” even including the cover on one promotional piece with “War On The Cross” against the U.S Coalition depicting President Obama burning in flames.
DogsOfRome.Shoebat article.02.21.2015
CAPTION ON RIGHT: “Islamic State Challenges The World And Liberates Muslims”. CAPTION ON LEFT: “War On The Cross” with subtitle “The Dogs Of Rome Are Barking In Our Lands”.

Folks have been wondering who is producing these quality videos by ISIS. The firm is called Turjman Asawirti For International Productions which dedicates most of its work for ISIS. read more

Obama’s Allegiance To? Remember This? American History & Flag Fail [PHOTO]

Former NYC Mayor Rudy Giuliani has questioned if Mr. Barack Obama loves America.

Mayor Giuliani saying to the crowd, quote, “I do not believe, and I know this is a horrible thing to say, but I do not believe that the president loves America. He doesn’t love you and he doesn’t love me. He wasn’t brought up the way you were brought up and I was brought up, through love of this country.” The backlash was quick and it was harsh. FoxNews

Based upon Obama’s own words, actions and failures to protect Americans, we’d have to concur with America’s Mayor Guiliani.

Filmmaker, Dinesh D’Souza, points out in depth the expanse of Obama’s seething ingrained disdain of American colonialism in such examples as Obama returning the bust of Winston Churchhill back to Britain as one of his first official acts as US President:

Could this anti-colonialist loathing for the wealthy nations of the West explain Obama’s apology tours? His odd choice in the first 40 days of his administration to return to England a bust of Winston Churchill, the man who crushed Kenya’s Mau Mau independence uprising in the 1950s and allegedly was responsible for torturing Obama’s grandfather? His State Department’s policy-reversing urging of negotiations between Argentina and the U.K. over the fate of the Falkland Islands? WND

Obama does not love America now, or as she was intended to be, a beacon for Freedom and for The Gospel of Jesus Christ and freedom for all seeking to worship The Lord as they sought fit without fear of tyrants overly taxing them, enslaving them, torturing them, imprisoning them, beheading or burning them for their Judeo Christian faith in The Judeo Christian Trinity of: The Father God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, God The Only Son Jesus who was God become flesh through The Virgin Mary, and God in the person of the Holy Spirit left behind to give us Power to do what Jesus did for the sole Glory of God in Jesus Name.

Our nation’s history provides overwhelming evidence that America was birthed upon Judeo-Christian principles. The first act of America’s first Congress in 1774 was to ask a minister to open with prayer and to lead Congress in the reading of four chapters of the Bible. In 1776, in approving the Declaration of Independence, our founders acknowledged that all men “are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights…” and noted that they were relying “on the protection of Divine Providence” in the founding of this country. John Quincy Adams said, “The Declaration of Independence laid the cornerstone of human government upon the first precepts of Christianity.” Also, the signers of the 1783 Treaty of Paris, which ended the Revolutionary War, insisted the treaty begin with the phrase, “In the name of the most holy and undivided Trinity.” USNews

~ M. Katherine Orts Pastor’s wife to David A. Orts founders of USDefenseLeague.com ‘Pushing Back Tyranny With Truth”

In Lieu of Celebrating Lent, President Obama Goes Lunar

And then quickly segues into an ad for immigration reform. Classy.

#PMBenjaminNetanyahu Urgent Deadline Message to #USA #USCongress [VIDEO] #NuclearIran

May all Americans show support to our ally Israel and to Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu

Obama Prefers Time with Islamic Terrorists #makeDClisten [VIDEO]

One day before attending The White House Prayer Breakfast, before Mr. Obama spoke his irreverent (one thousand year old) Crusade remarks comparing current day Christianity to the vile evil of Islamic State IS/ISIS atrocities,  Obama hung out with at least four known, present day Islamic terrorists, for two hours in The White House.

The Islamic Muslim terrorists names were meant to remain a secret from the press, and by default the American public and the world at large, yet were confirmed to be on the back of a WH press release.

According to Investor’s Business Daily here are four out of fourteen Islamic guests who are indisputable Muslim terrorists:

Imam Mohamed Magid, who preaches at a fundamentalist Northern Virginia mosque that has listed a number of trustees and major donors whose offices and homes were raided after 9/11 by federal agents on suspicion of funding terrorists.

Azhar_Azeez

Azhar Azeez, president of the Islamic Society of North America, a known radical Muslim Brotherhood and Hamas front group that remains on the Justice Department’s list of unindicted terrorist co-conspirators.

Sherman Jackson, who as the King Faisal Chair of Islamic Thought at USC, once gave a lecture at a conference in Toronto that has been described by “Campus Watch” as a “call to battle” between Muslims and the West.

Hoda Hawa (Elshishtawy) national policy analyst for the Muslim Public Affairs Council, which was founded by known members of the Muslim Brotherhood, a worldwide jihadist movement. The group’s former president, Salam al-Marayati, was once kicked off the National Commission on Terrorism after his defense of terrorist acts and the groups who carry them out was revealed.

It appears the Christian ruse is up for Obama as he continues to publically snub our ally, Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu and chooses to instead embrace our Islamic enemies, literally. – M.Katherine Orts Pastor’s wife to David A. Orts founders of www.USDefenseLeague.com

H/T: Allen West,

2015 Prayer Breakfast video source: CBN

#BirdLaunchByObama Interfering With #BibiNetanyahu #IsraelElections #MakeDCListen #tcot #ShalomJerusalem

US Senator Cruz: Has Obama launched a political campaign against Netanyahu?

(USDefenseLeague.com Editors/Publishers Note: This article derived entirely from World Israel, quoting Ha’aretz, was seemingly, falsely flagged as unsafe by entities unknown so as to divert attention away from this bombshell of a political interference story of Obama attempting to thwart Israel’s Benjamin Netanyahu’s probable re-election .)

After US Senator Ted Cruz and Congressman Lee Zeldin questioned the State Department about possibly influencing Israeli elections, the Likud Party accused V15, a campaign organization, of using foreign money to fund a left-wing political campaign.

Reports have repeatedly surfaced in the media that Obama is attempting to influence the outcome of Israel’s elections through funding and that one of his former top campaign advisers, Jeremy Bird, is in Israel helping the left-wing campaign.

Netanyahu’s Likud party held a press conference on Sunday in order to expose details about “V15 – Victory in 2015,” a campaigning organization that allegedly is using vast sums of foreign money to promote the left-wing Labor and Meretz parties in the elections.

Likud has also filed a motion to the Elections Committee, claiming that V15 is “making criminal use of foreign sources of funding” that are funneling huge sums of money into the left-wing campaign.

Ha’aretz reports that Bird, the Obama’s campaign national field director, came to Israel with a team of consultants and is running a grassroots, Obama-style campaign from an office in Tel Aviv.

V-15 is not supporting a specific party. The only message is: “Just not Bibi.”

Congress: This is Unacceptable Conduct
Senator Ted Cruz (R-Tx) and Congressman Lee Zeldin (R-NY-1) sent a letter on Thursday to Secretary of State John Kerry regarding media reports that US taxpayer dollars are being used to fund efforts to influence upcoming elections in Israel, funneled through the State Department.

Cruz and Zeldin demanded to know, for instance, how much funding the US government has provided to these groups and who approved the funding.

“Has President Obama launched a political campaign against Prime Minister Netanyahu and his representatives?” Cruz asked. “This administration’s relentless harassment of Israel is utterly incomprehensible. The Islamic Republic of Iran is pursuing the deadliest weapons on the planet, and there can be no doubt that their first target will be Israel, followed by the United States. This administration should be focusing its animosity on the very real enemies we face, not on our staunch allies.”

“It is completely unacceptable to use US tax dollars to influence the elections in Israel,” added Zeldin. “State Department grants should never be given to entities working to overthrow strong allies like Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu. We have great allies around the world, but Israel is our strongest, and a beacon of freedom in a region filled with radical Islamic extremists and state sponsored terrorism.”

In the letter, Cruz and Zeldin write: “Of course private American citizens are free to engage in political activities according to their inclinations, but given the overtly partisan nature of this particular case, we are deeply concerned.”

Cruz further engaged in a Facebook campaign, saying: “Now it is time for a simple question: Has President Obama launched a political campaign against Prime Minister Netanyahu and his allies?”

Following the revelations regarding V15 and its US connections, the Zionist Organization of America (ZOA) stated: “Obama’s campaign team is giving advice in Israel on how to defeat Netanyahu, while Obama refuses to meet Netanyahu and hypocritically says that it is because such a meeting could be seen as interfering in the election.”

Credit: Written by World Israel News Staff

Source : http://worldisraelnews.com/senator-cruz-president-obama-launched-political-campaign-prime-minister-netanyahu/

Republished in USA by USDefenseLeague.com giving proper attribution to World Israel News

#USA #Alert Pelosi Giving Congressional Intel Position To Muslim Madrassa Maker

Minority house speaker, Democrat Congresswoman ~ Nancy Pelosi, is putting Muslim congressman, Rep. Andre Carson, in a highly sensitive position of power, on a Congressional Intelligence committee. This particular Muslim is an adult convert to the Islamic faith and wants all US schools to be run like, or as close as is possible, to Muslim Madrassas.

Our Republic of The United States and, especially our children, are not to be messed with!

We are at war with Islamic extremists aka Muslim extremists. Muslims follow the tenets of Islam including Islamic Jihad. There is no difference between being a Muslim or an Islamist.

Should a person’s loyalty be to Islam above and in lieu of our US Constitution or our founder’s Judeo Christian recognition (as well as our acknowledgement) of Our Creator God, what then?

Our nation and our system does not work without The Word of God, our founders stated this truth many times. Our entire legal system is based upon the principles of The Ten Commandments found within the Torah/Old Testament.

Now is not the time to debate the sensitivities of Muslims around the world or in our neighborhoods. There is no room for political correctness. Islam is a Theocratic militant ideological government wrapped in the cloak of a faith without any Freedom. Sharia in Islam mandates conversion, compliance, servitude, Dhimmitude or death for any non-muslim who refuses to accept allah as their one true god and Muhammad as the one true prophet.

Our nation, as a Christian nation, allows for other differing faiths and beliefs and does not command conversion or death. Yet, that is what any Muslim is taught in the Koran or in any mosque.

Muslims must assimilate in The United States of America to allow for true Freedom to exist among all faiths, or Muslims who disagree and insist on living on US soil and vowing Islamic allegiance to a foreign government, must then leave, and go to or back to, a Muslim nation. For Muslims who desire to remain, they must follow our US laws.

Islamic Sharia creates a separate, competing and toxic government bent on killing all ‘kafirs’ (non-Muslims) wherever they find them.

Saying Islam is peaceful is the art of the Islamic practice of taqiyya, which is the purposed act of deceiving the unbelievers in order to further the goals of Islam. The ultimate goal for all Muslims, is to establish a one world Islamic Caliphate.

How many more beheadings at the hands of IS/ISIS or any other Muslim, before we stand up united as one nation under God (God The Father, God The Son and God The Holy Spirit) and say, “No more?!”

Now is the time to prevent any future Islamic terror attacks on America and upon our fellow Americans and allies.

In this time of declared war by Islamic jihadists against all of colonized Western civilization, we must cease yielding our free speech and right for our nation’s military readiness. Our very lives are at stake.

Knowledge is power and the Word of God states that His people perish for lack of it or lack of a vision.

Let us pray for wisdom for all of our Godly leaders and allies such as Israel. For those persons in leadership with subversive hidden agendas, let us pray they will stumble in the darkness failing in the execution of their own evil plans.

All prayers are submitted and prayed in Jesus Holy Name according to God The Father’s perfect will carried out by His Holy spirit divinely and in hopeful humble obedience in those of us who hear and obey The Shepherd’s voice.

~ M. Katherine Orts Pastors wife to David Alan Orts “Fighting back tyranny with Truth” founders of USDefenseLeague.com

Allah will not allow you to stop us.’~ Congressman André Carson

House Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi is set to appoint a Muslim lawmaker to the Intelligence Committee, congressional aides said Tuesday, giving him access to some of America’s most closely held secrets in the war on terror.

The move will come as the world is still grappling with an al-Qaeda death squad’s massacre last week of journalists at the French satire magazine Charlie Hebdo, executed because they had published a cartoon of the Muslim prophet Muhammad.

Rep. André Carson has attracted suspicion for his public statements, including a 2012 Islamic Circle of North America convention where he said America’s schools should be modelled after Qur’anic madrassas.

Moments later he warned undercover law enforcement skulking around the event looking for ‘secret meetings’ that ‘Allah will not allow you to stop us.’

FRIEND OF BARACK: President Obama took Carson with him on Air Force One in May 2011 when he spoke about transportation policy in Indianapolis; he's a reliable voice on the Democratic party's left flank and one of only two Muslim members of Congress

FRIEND OF BARACK: President Obama took Carson with him on Air Force One in May 2011 when he spoke about transportation policy in Indianapolis; he’s a reliable voice on the Democratic party’s left flank and one of only two Muslim members of Congress

Carson, a former police officer, represents Indiana’s 7th District, an urban area that includes most of Indianapolis. He is one of only two Muslim members of Congress, the other being Minnesota Democrat Keith Ellison.

Voters sent him to Congress in a 2008 special election following the death of his grandmother, who held the seat before him.

He was already a member of the House Armed Services subcommittee on intelligence, and once worked for the Department of Homeland Security’s ‘Fusion Center’ – a data-sharing hub that merges intelligence collected by the CIA, the FBI, the Pentagon and the Justice Department.

But his elevation to the House Intelligence Committee, first reported by Politico, will cause rumbles among lawmakers who charge that the U.S. government – particularly the Obama administration – has studiously avoided linking Islam with the steady stream of deadly attacks that plague Europe, Africa and the Middle East.

At the 2012 Islamic convention in Hartford, Connecticut, Carson said that ‘America will never tap into educational innovation and ingenuity without looking at the model that we have in our madrassas, in our schools, where innovation is encouraged, where the foundation is the Qu’ran.’

‘And that model that we are pushing in some of our schools meets the multiple needs of students.’

He drew applause when he acknowledged the presence of undercover federal law enforcement in the audience – agents who were drawn to the event because of the high concentration of Muslim leaders.

‘There are over 7 million Muslims in this country,’ Carson told the crowd. ‘And while we are under attack, we cannot retreat.’

‘It’s unfortunate that there are those who are thinking that, at this convention right now, we’re having secret meetings, that we’re plotting to destroy this country. But I say to those who are here undercover: Allah will not allow you to stop us.’

After the speech made headlines, Carson’s office released a statement saying he was misunderstood – and meant his remarks as a broad endorsement of religious education.

‘Faith-based schools throughout this country have excelled because of innovative instructional methods and a willingness to engage different learning styles – whether visual, auditory, or kinesthetic,’ he said.

‘While I do not believe that any particular faith should be the foundation of our public schools, it is important that we take note of the instructional tools these schools utilize to empower their young people. Christian, Jewish, and Islamic schools have experienced notable success by casting off a one-size-fits-all approach to education, and this is a model we must replicate.’

Carson was raised in a Baptist family, attended parochial schools, and converted to Islam as an adult in 1998.

MADAME MINORITY LEADER: Nancy Pelosi, a former House speaker and the chamber's highest ranking Democrat, has reportedly decided to give Carson a slot on the all-knowing intelligence committeeMADAME MINORITY LEADER: Nancy Pelosi, a former House speaker and the chamber’s highest ranking Democrat, has reportedly decided to give Carson a slot on the all-knowing intelligence committee.

Although he was quick to backtrack on his advice about madrassas, Carson has never publicly addressed his comments about violent extremism and law enforcement’s ability to stop it.

Carson’s press secretary did not immediately respond to a request for comment.

In a Huffington Post interview two months ago, he reflected on his time as a police officer assigned to track terrorism and conduct counter-intelligence.

‘What I learned is that in the U.S., as in the UK, it is impossible to fight the threat of global terror without help from Muslims,’ the congressman said.

‘But there is a problem with institutional bigotry.’

Carson also claimed that ‘xenophobia has become exacerbated because of extremist elements [within Islam], but I still say that Muslims have to take control of our own destiny and to reclaim our destiny we have to engage in a political process.’

Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2910327/Democrats-appoint-Muslim-House-Intelligence-Committee-said-schools-like-Islamic-madrassas-warned-law-enforcement-Allah-not-allow-stop-us.html#ixzz3QBdui4bn
Follow us: @MailOnline on Twitter | DailyMail on Facebook

By David Martosko, Us Political Editor For Dailymail.com

Obama Visits US Troops for “Holiday” as Congress Fights for Ft. Hood Victims’ Purple Hearts

Obama fits in a “Holiday” visit to some of our troops as he is talking about how our US involvement in Afganistan is attempting to wind down yet simulateously reminding all that it will remain “a dangerous place.”

Congress will be attempting to give the victims of the Fort Hood shooting US Military Purple hearts. One wonders how that will work since our POTUS still refuses to recognize the mass shootings as an Islamic terrorist event equivalent to an act of war on US soil by an Islamic jihadist attempting to further the goals of Islam by attacking our active US Military troops during an active time of war. It was not workplace violence Mr. Obama! Most Americans agree on that point. ~MKO for USDefenseLeague.com “Pushing Back Tyranny With Truth” for the Glory of God and our Good USA #Pro-Israel

We here at USDefenseLeague wish you all a very Merry CHRISTmas and a Happy Hanukkah too.

Credit: DOD (Department of Defense) Crossposted with proper attribution

May 17th – George Washington proclaims a Day of Fasting and of Thanksgiving

Contrary to what the leftists rewriting history will have you believe, our Founding Fathers were faithful to Judeo Christian values, and founded the United States of America on those values. Always question a Communist (progressive) when they start to speak of faith. Happy Thanksgiving everyone from the founders and staff of PBN and US Defense League!

Congressional Fast Day Proclamation
Congress proclaimed days of fasting and of thanksgiving annually throughout the Revolutionary War. This proclamation by Congress set May 17, 1776, as a “day of Humiliation, Fasting and Prayer” throughout the colonies. Congress urges its fellow citizens to “confess and bewail our manifold sins and transgressions, and by a sincere repentance and amendment of life, appease his [God’s] righteous displeasure, and through the merits and mediation of Jesus Christ, obtain his pardon and forgiveness.” Massachusetts ordered a “suitable Number” of these proclamations be printed so “that each of the religious Assemblies in this Colony, may be furnished with a Copy of the same” and added the motto “God Save This People” as a substitute for “God Save the King.

TedCruz refuses to tow the RINO line or allow Obama to lie and whine. #MakeDCListen Includes The Federalist #69 RT to @BarackObama [VIDEO]

senator-ted-cruz1

 “I’m the president, not a dictator” -BO

“To be clear, the dispute over executive amnesty is not between President Obama and Republicans in Congress; it is a dispute between President Obama and the American people.” –Ted Cruz

Many had a dream for our first Black President, predominantly black Americans, as he or she would be our very first black president, that’s why they turned out with over a 90 percentile vote for Obama (King must be doing somersault in his grave) Maybe these voters, many of whom had never voted, and honestly were uninformed about politics, and  particularly about Obama’s, jaded and quite honestly vile past which has caused deleterious effects  to many people’s lives. What they thought perhaps  was he’s someone like Martin Luther King, Jr., who dreamed of a future nation for his four children, void of race “. . . a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin, but by the content of their character.” Enter Obama , smooth, convincing, educated, and he plead a case for unity, not left or right but an all inclusive nation, he spoke a message of healing and truth. He “preached” about transparency in DC, and some, the uninformed in our nation, had hope beyond hope. Youth and minorities wanted a hip  and “caring for the cause” president.  But most of them now know the truth, and it is something far different. What they got in the first black US president (technically bi-racial) was not a dream, but a nightmare.  His “amnesty” order will be hurting minorities the most and they’re already hurting the most. Painfully and deeply in the lack of job opportunities, murder, substance abuse, broken homes, fatherless children, poverty and otherobama_king areas. The truth is Obama doesn’t care for anyone but Obama and his legacy. We’re here on the front lines with you Patriot Brothers and Sisters, and yes we’re waiting, waiting for our lawbreaking President to once again arrest the attention of legal U.S. tax paying citizens, along with those here illegally, those who are invading our country and burdening every aspect of our Federal and States systems. to again, break US Law. Obama’s own words make the best case against his lawless action. We are certainly praying for, and are hopeful that, Speaker Boehner & Senate Elect Majority Leader Mitch McConnell know that the American people have given them, and every member of the right side of the aisle another opportunity to show We The People that they can lead. Mitch  McConnell and John Boehner  would both do well in listening to intellectually honest, well spoken Patriots and colleague, Senators Mike Lee and Ted Cruz, who agree on what Ted Cruz wrote in the excerpt from Politico.

The Constitution designs a system of checks and balances for our nation, and executive amnesty for immigrants here illegally unilaterally decreed from the White House would seriously undermine the rule of law. Our founders repeatedly warned about the dangers of unlimited power within the executive branch; Congress should heed those words as the president threatens to grant amnesty to millions of people who have come to our country illegally. To be clear, the dispute over executive amnesty is not between President Obama and Republicans in Congress; it is a dispute between President Obama and the American people. The Democrats suffered historic losses in the midterm elections largely over the prospect of the president’s executive amnesty. President Obama was correct: His policies were on the ballot across the nation in 2014. The elections were a referendum on amnesty, and the voters soundly rejected it. There was no ambiguity. [read more]

The following is a must read for the POTUSTedCruzExecAmnesty

In Chapter 69, the president would be elected for a term of four years; he would be eligible for re-election. He would not have the life tenure of an hereditary monarch. The president would be liable to impeachment, trial, and removal from office upon being found guilty of treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors. He would be accountable at all times to the country at large.

The president was also to be the commander-in-chief of all regular United States military forces and of the state militias when called into national service. The president would have only occasional command of the state militias, and only when authorized by the Congress.

In addition, the president would have the power to pardon all offenders except those found guilty in an impeachment trial. He would regulate foreign relations with the advice and consent of the Senate, and have other extensive powers. But since a president was to be elected every four years, he could not possibly become a “perpetual and hereditary prince” like the despised and “tyrannical” King George III of Britain.

In Chapter 70, there were some who argued that a vigorous executive was inconsistent with republican principles. All men of sense agreed, said Hamilton, about the “necessity of an energetic executive.” That necessary energy would come from unity, duration, adequate provision for its support, and competent powers. The first need was “due dependence on the people”; the second, due responsibility.

As to unity, Hamilton argued (largely to himself), that executive powers should be concentrated in a single chief magistrate, and not in a council or anything of that sort. The history of Rome and the ancient Greek republics proved this, as well as the operations under various state governments. As chief magistrate, the president should bear sole responsibility for his acts. There was no need of a “council to the executive.”

In Chapter 71, this is a prolix essay on why the president’s term in office should be limited and why a new election to the presidency should be held periodically: every four years, as proposed. Four years would be long enough, but not too long. That period would keep the president responsive to the changing views and interests of the people if he hoped for re-election.

In Chapter 72, the president should be eligible for re-election. Otherwise, the chief magistrate might become irresponsible. Knowing that he would not be called to account by the people for whatever he did, he might do whatever he pleased, making himself a fortune while he could.

A man having served four years as president would have more knowledge of statecraft and the inner workings of the government than one who had not. To exclude a president from seeking to succeed himself might well result in the “fatal inconveniences of fluctuating councils and a variable policy.”

In Chapter 73, the vigor of the executive branch depended on adequate provision for its support, to be determined by Congress. It was possible that Congress might decide to “starve” an unpopular president by reducing or abolishing his salary, or “tempt him by largesses” to surrender his judgment and discretion.

No provision in the proposed constitution was more “judicious” than this, said Hamilton: The president would receive for his services a compensation “which shall neither be increased nor diminished, during the period for which he shall have been elected, . . . and shall not receive within that period any other emolument from the United States or any of them.” This would make the president financially independent and free to move as his judgment dictated.

The president should have the power to exercise a qualified negative over the acts of the two legislative bodies. He could return all bills he objected to so that they could not become laws unless subsequently passed again, this time by a two-thirds vote in both houses of Congress. This would protect the president from having his powers whittled away by the legislature, and be a safeguard against hasty and ill-considered legislation. This would tend toward greater stability in government. To avoid a clash with the legislature, the president would be inclined to use his qualified veto cautiously.

In Chapter 74, among other requisite powers, the president was to be commander-in-chief of all regular United States military forces and of the state militias “when called into the actual service of the United States.” The propriety and reasons for this were so obvious, said Hamilton, that there was no need to discuss them.

The president was to have the power to grant pardons and reprieves for offences against the United States, “except in cases of impeachment.” There had been little criticism of this, Hamilton noted, except in relation to treason. Some argued that one or both legislative houses should be brought into proceedings involving the possible pardon of anyone convicted of treason. Hamilton saw some merit in that view, but concluded by saying that the power of granting pardons in treason cases should be left solely in the hands of the president, for “in seasons of insurrection or rebellion” the president could act more decisively and judiciously in granting amnesties. This might prevent the contending groups from coming to a violent and possibly disastrous collision.

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